Commonlit auschwitz

If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.

The holocaust is significant because it killed millions of people because of racism. Its history is important and it shows how hatred can become an obsession. Among other things, the Holocaust is a devastating illustration of just how thin the veneer of civilization is. In the period from about the German states from on, Germany were widely admired as a highly civilized country.

Its music, architecture, painting, literature and craftsmanship were widely respected and admired. Germany had a reputation for having an outstanding education system at all levels. Especially from about it was the world leader in scientific and academic research.

Yet, men acting on the orders of this country that carried out the genocide. As far as one can tell, most of those who did the detailed planning and carried out the actual killings, most of those who saw the victims face to face, weren't psychopaths, but very ordinary people, in fact boringly ordinary in most cases.

Most of them were family men, with wives and kids who, as far as one can tell, took their family duties seriously. Many of them were kind to animals. Hoess, the Commandant of Auschwitz from its foundation in tillillustrates the type, so does Eichmann.

Then there were very ordinary policemen, from cities like Hamburg, who had previously been ordinary cops - also law abiding, married men with children for the most part; but when drafted into SD dead squads and sent to Russia they machine-gunned defenseless victims. What's more their commanders made it clear from the outset that this particular 'work' was voluntary, that they could refuse to do it without fear of any victimization, that they could go back home and return to their civilian work.

A small number did in fact refuse and went home - and that was the end of the matter for them. Why so few? Many who have thought carefully about this have commented on the reluctance of many people to be different, to stand out, to stand up. Others have stressed the lack of moral courage 'moral fibre'the tendency to do as we're told, the fear of trusting out own feelings, and so on.

The perpetrators illustrate what Hannah Arendt called 'the banality of evil' - that is, 'the ordinariness of evil'. They were 'extraordinary in their ordinariness', to quote the German writer Hermann Glaser. To prove to the world what human beings are capable of. Without trivializing the deaths in the Holocaust, or the groups that were targeted, men have been systematically slaughtering each other based on ethnicity, religion, nationality, race, and a host of other factors for several millenia.

That Jews were the main target is sadly unremarkable. Besides the scale of the slaughter and, the relative short timeframe this slaughter was carried outthere are two really unique and interrelated characteristics which make the Holocaust stand out from all other genocides and mass-murders in history: 1 The level of industrialized, mechanized, and automated death. Never before and, really, never since has a mass murder campaign been carried out with such precision and utilizing the full resources of the country.

Complete systems of automated death were designed and used to maximum efficiency, with constant "improvements" and other hallmarks of the industrial revolution's manufacturing processes. Unlike all other genocides, the level of planning and execution mirrored that of an industrial assembly line process - effectively, the Holocaust manufactured mass death as a product, and sold it to its victims.

The reason we know so much about the Holocaust's victims was, that unlike all other mass-murder campaigns, the Nazi's kept meticulous records of everything, just like any other government bureaucracy.While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish victims, statistics indicate that the total was over 5, Six million is the round figure accepted by most authorities. While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number, the recognized figure is approximately 5, Among the groups which the Nazis and their collaborators murdered and persecuted were: Gypsies, Serbs, Polish intelligentsia, resistance fighters from all the nations, German opponents of Nazism, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, habitual criminals, and the "anti-social," e.

Every Jewish community in occupied Europe suffered losses during the Holocaust. The Jewish communities in North Africa were persecuted, but were not subjected to the same large-scale deportations or mass murder. Some individuals, however, were deported to German death camps, where they perished. Austria 50, -- A death or mass murder camp is a concentration camp with special apparatus specifically designed for systematic murder. All were located in Poland. The term was used at the Wannsee Conference Berlin; January 20, where German officials discussed its implementation.

While thousands of Jews were murdered by the Nazis or died as a direct result of discriminatory measures instituted against Jews during the initial years of the Third Reich, the systematic murder of Jews did not begin until the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June On November 14,the Nazis issued the following definition of a Jew: Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who belonged to the Jewish community on September 15,or joined thereafter; was married to a Jew or Jewess on September 15,or married one thereafter; was the offspring of a marriage or extramarital liaison with a Jew on or after September 15, Those who were not classified as Jews but who had some Jewish blood were categorized as Mischlinge hybrids and were divided into two groups:.

The Mischlinge were officially excluded from membership in the Nazi Party and all Party organizations e. SA, SS, etc. Although they were drafted into the Germany Army, they could not attain the rank of officers. They were also barred from the civil service and from certain professions. Individual Mischlinge were, however, granted exemptions under certain circumstances. Nazi officials considered plans to sterilize Mischlinge, but this was never done.

During World War II, first-degree Mischlinge, incarcerated in concentration camps, were deported to death camps. April 7, The law for the Re-establishment of the Civil Service expelled all non-Aryans defined on April 11, as anyone with a Jewish parent or grandparent from the civil service.

Initially, exceptions were made for those working since August ; German veterans of World War I; and, those who had lost a father or son fighting for Germany or her allies in World War I. April 7, The law regarding admission to the legal profession prohibited the admission of lawyers of non-Aryan descent to the Bar.

A Holocaust Survivor, Spared From Gas Chamber By Twist Of Fate

It also denied non-Aryan members of the Bar the right to practice law. Exceptions were made in the cases noted above in the law regarding the civil service. Similar laws were passed regarding Jewish law assessors, jurors, and commercial judges.

April 22, The decree regarding physicians' services with the national health plan denied reimbursement of expenses to those patients who consulted non-Aryan doctors. Jewish doctors who were war veterans or had suffered from the war were excluded. April 25, The law against the overcrowding of German schools restricted Jewish enrollment in German high schools to 1.

Initially, exceptions were made in the case of children of Jewish war veterans, who were not considered part of the quota.

In the framework of this law, a Jewish student was a child with two non-Aryan parents. This question is one of the most difficult to answer. While Hitler made several references to killing Jews, both in his early writings Mein Kampf and in various speeches during the s, it is fairly certain that the Nazis had no operative plan for the systematic annihilation of the Jews before The decision on the systematic murder of the Jews was apparently made in the late winter or the early spring of in conjunction with the decision to invade the Soviet Union.

The first concentration camp, Dachau, opened on March 22, The camp's first inmates were primarily political prisoners e. Communists or Social Democrats ; habitual criminals; homosexuals; Jehovah's Witnesses; and "anti-socials" beggars, vagrants, hawkers.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? How can you locate other people who are going through the same situation you went through? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.

Around 6 million were Jews, 1. When it became obvious to the members of the German High Command that the war was lost, they began to order all prisoners marched out of the camps, and mass-marched in the direction away from the advancing armies. The camp, if ti was a work camp, was then abandoned, or if it was a death camp, it was destroyed, as best as they could.

At least, that was the plan. But the Allies from every direction were advancing too fast, and many of the camps - including death camps - were captured intact, with prisoners still there. About 1, This staggering figure includes all satellite camps, including temporary camps.

There were about 20 main camps Stammlager. Most concentration camps had many sub-camps, many of them labour camps that only functioned for a short time. The list below from the German-language Wikipedia is very good.

There is a link below to the list issued by the Federal German Ministry of Justice. This can be assumed to be more or less definitive. The figure of 1, only includes camps run by the SS and related organization.

commonlit auschwitz

It does not include camps for Soviet prisoners of war or camps for forced labourers imported to Germany from Eastern Europe. Please see the link for the full list and also the related question.

commonlit auschwitz

The figure of 1, camps does not include camps for forced foreign labourers sent to Germany from the various countries under German rule. Many of these camps, especially those for Poles and Ukrainians, were little better than concentration camps. Nor does the figure include regular POW prisoner of war camps. Note that there were three grades of ordinary Nazi concentration camps.

Conditions at the Grade III camps were appallingly bad. In there were 5. Please see the link beginning with the word Bundesministerium for the full list. Because the camps were located in all of the occupied countries in some form or another, and because many camps had sub-camps and even the sub-camps were further divided at different labor sites, I doubt that even the Nazi's could answer.

Camps existed in Africa and even in the British Channel Islands. Not all camps were giant extermination factories, some were collection and transit points while the vast majority were labor centers with as few as a couple dozen inmates. Answer There were ten times more camps than that!

Only now as that particular generation die out is the true number starting to be revealed. What they have found so far has shocked even scholars steeped in the history of the Holocaust. The researchers have cataloged some 42, Nazi ghettos and camps throughout Europe, spanning German-controlled areas from France to Russia and Germany itself, during Hitler's reign of brutality from to The figure is so staggering that even fellow Holocaust scholars had to make sure they had heard it correctly when the lead researchers previewed their findings at an academic forum When the research began inDr.

Megargee said he expected to find perhaps 7, Nazi camps and ghettos, based on postwar estimates.Around this time 70 years ago, following the liberation of Nazi concentration camps in Europe, the world was coming to grips with the scale of the Holocaust, and how to deal with crimes so horrendous, they're almost incomprehensible.

Right now in Germany, a year-old former Nazi who served at Auschwitz is on trial. Holocaust survivor Eva Kor flew to Germany to testify about her experience in the camp.

I was left orphaned not knowing really what will become of us. Kor says she was "between life and death" and used in brutal medical experiments. She and her sister Miriam were among the thousands of twins subjected to horrendous experiments by the infamous Dr.

Josef Mengele. Eva became gravely sick, and says Mengele examined her and declared that had only two weeks to live. Inshe found out that had she died, Mengele would have killed Miriam with an injection to the heart in order to do comparative autopsies. I spoiled the experiment," she says. Seventy years after all of this, she was approached to testify in the trial against former Auschwitz guard Oskar Groening.

At first, she wasn't sure she wanted to, but an attorney convinced her. But she says she thought it would be a "unique experience" to face one of the guards from Auschwitz. Kor says the experience for her, a survivor of Auschwitz who used to be called a "dirty Jew," to sit in a German court and be treated with respect by German judges and attorneys and the German court system was a little bit surreal. Oskar Groening has been called "The Accountant of Auschwitz. Now 93 years old, he is charged withcounts of accessory to murder, but once said that he was "just a small cog in the killing machine Kor talked with Groening after her testimony, wanting to thank him for acknowledging his crimes.

She decided she wanted a picture with him, and as she proceeded to talk with Groening, he grabbed her and pulled her in for a hug and a kiss. The photo of Kor seeming to embrace the former Nazi shocked a lot of people. And some — including some fellow survivors — were upset by an interview on German TV in which Eva spoke of forgiveness. She says her comments were translated incorrectly.

But if she were the judge, she wouldn't throw Groening in a prison cell. She'd make him travel the country to talk to young neo-Nazis, and tell them what he saw and that the Nazi regime should never come back. For Kor, forgiveness does not mean that the perpetrators are absolved of their crimes. Kor says that when a victim chooses to forgive, they take the power back from their tormentors. But that it is their choice to make. It's for you to know that you forgive, and you can go on with your life without the burden and pain that the Nazis or anybody else ever imposed on you.

I am a survivor of medical experiments performed on twin children at Auschwitz, and 70 years later, here I am meeting a Nazi guard from Auschwitz. I have already forgiven the Nazis 20 years ago — not because they deserve it, but because I deserve to be free from the burden they have imposed upon me. It does not mean I condone or absolve what was done. That is for the court to decide. Meeting Oskar Groening was just one more opportunity for me to learn something about what happened at Auschwitz and to encourage him to testify, because his testimony corroborates the tragedy of the victims.She testified at the trial of year-old former Auschwitz guard Oskar Groening.

Around this time 70 years ago, following the liberation of Nazi concentration camps in Europe, the world was coming to grips with the scale of the holocaust, and how to deal with crimes so horrendous, they're almost incomprehensible.

Right now in Germany, a year-old former Nazi who served at Auschwitz is on trial. Holocaust survivor Eva Kor flew to Germany to testify about her experience in the camp. I was left orphaned not knowing really what will become of us. Kor says she was "between life and death" and used in brutal medical experiments.

She and her sister Miriam were among the thousands of twins subjected to horrendous experiments by the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. Eva became gravely sick, and says Mengele examined her and declared that had only two weeks to live.

Inshe found out that had she died, Mengele would have killed Miriam with an injection to the heart in order to do comparative autopsies. Seventy years after all of this, she was approached to testify in the trial against former Auschwitz guard Oskar Groening. At first, she wasn't sure she wanted to, but an attorney convinced her. But she says she thought it would be a "unique experience" to face one of the guards from Auschwitz. Kor says the experience for her, a survivor of Auschwitz who used to be called a "dirty Jew," to sit in a German court and be treated with respect by German judges and attorneys and the German court system was a little bit surreal.

Oskar Groening has been called "The Accountant of Auschwitz. Now 93 years old, he is charged withcounts of accessory to murder, but once said that he was "just a small cog in the killing machine Kor talked with Groening after her testimony, wanting to thank him for acknowledging his crimes.

She decided she wanted a picture with him, and as she proceeded to talk with Groening, he grabbed her and pulled her in for a hug and a kiss.

Holocaust survivor Eva Kor meets former Auschwitz guard Oskar Groening, whom she says she forgives for his crimes. The photo of Kor seeming to embrace the former Nazi shocked a lot of people. And some — including some fellow survivors — were upset by an interview on German TV in which Eva spoke of forgiveness. She says her comments were translated incorrectly.

Knee injection cpt

But if she were the judge, she wouldn't throw Groening in a prison cell. She'd make him travel the country to talk to young neo-Nazis, and tell them what he saw and that the Nazi regime should never come back.

Blackberry z10 caracteristicas opiniones

For Kor, forgiveness does not mean that the perpetrators are absolved of their crimes. Kor says that when a victim chooses to forgive, they take the power back from their tormentors. But that it is their choice to make. It's for you to know that you forgive, and you can go on with your life without the burden and pain that the Nazis or anybody else ever imposed on you.

I am a survivor of medical experiments performed on twin children at Auschwitz, and 70 years later, here I am meeting a Nazi guard from Auschwitz. I have already forgiven the Nazis 20 years ago — not because they deserve it, but because I deserve to be free from the burden they have imposed upon me. It does not mean I condone or absolve what was done. That is for the court to decide.

Meeting Oskar Groening was just one more opportunity for me to learn something about what happened at Auschwitz and to encourage him to testify, because his testimony corroborates the tragedy of the victims.

It also sends a stronger message to the neo-Nazis and all these misguided extremists who want to destroy the world again. The neo-Nazis think I might have made it up, but they cannot ignore the point of view of a former Nazi. This video shows one human being reaching out to another — former adversaries meeting as human beings.

Share this video so we can learn how to deal with old wounds, how to resolve issues with old enemies, and how we can relate — one human being to another.

Holocaust survivor visits Auschwitz for first time since camp's liberation

Anger is a seed for war.Played times. Print Share Edit Delete. Live Game Live. Finish Editing. This quiz is incomplete! To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Delete Quiz. Question 1.

commonlit auschwitz

Who was Anne Frank? A young American girl. When was Ann Frank born? Where was Anne Frank born? Amsterdam, Netherlands. What did Ann receive for her 13th birthday? Where did Ann move in ? Why did the Franks immigrate from Germany? Because Hitler came to power. Because they had family in Holland. Because Mr. Frank got a job offer. Because the war started in Germany. Where did the Franks hide? In an abandoned warehouse. In their friends' house. Why did the Franks go into hiding?

Frank received a letter to go to a labor camp. Margot received a letter to go to a labor camp. Anne received a letter to go to a labor camp. Who was the only person from the Secret Annex to survive the Holocaust? Who found Anne's diary? Quizzes you may like. The Diary of Anne Frank Play.

The Diary of Anne Frank. Characters in "The Diary of Anne Frank". The Diary of Anne Frank play. All Summer in a Day.Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson. Jack Mandelbaum, a Holocaust survivor from the Polish city of Gdynia, poses in front of a photograph showing him as a youth. Seventy years ago, Soviet soldiers liberated Auschwitz, the most notorious of Nazi concentration camps. Some Holocaust survivors were at Auschwitz on Tuesday, along with several European presidents and other government officials, to honor at least 1.

Among those killed there were Jack Mandelbaum's mother and brother. The Polish-born Mandelbaum survived, spared at the last minute by an officer of the dreaded SS who yanked the teen away from his family and sent him instead to a forced labor camp.

Mother abandoned child with father

Last week, Mandelbaum flew from his Naples, Fla. Hate doesn't get you anyplace.

Commonlit Answers: All Story Assignments

In Augustas the Nazis were about to invade Poland, Mandelbaum was 13 and living in the Polish port city of Gdynia. Mandelbaum says his father worried that the port would be attacked, so he sent his wife and three children to stay with relatives in the countryside.

He promised to join them six weeks later, but he never arrived. About a year later, he sent them a postcard from the Stutthof concentration camp. He never saw his father again. His sister later died on a forced march to another concentration camp. And we were lined up in the market square, and then we were marched to a local brewery. An SS officer there began separating people to the left and to the right. Mandelbaum says he clung to his mother and brother, who were sent to the left.

But the SS officer saw in his documents that Mandelbaum had worked as an electrician's helper.

Model prezentare firma

As for his family, he says, "The people who were to the left were sent to Auschwitz to be gassed. I never saw them again.

Martin Niemöller: "First they came for the socialists..."

To the Nazis, he became prisoner and spent the next three years at seven concentration camps. The first was Gross-Rosen, where prisoners worked in a granite quarry.

commonlit auschwitz

And we were lined up like herring on the floor, so when one person turned, everybody else had to turn, it was so tight. Food was scarce, and the daily meal amounted to a single piece of bread and what Mandelbaum describes as soup made out of grass.

Tdé o

He recalls emaciated prisoners stuffing paper into their mouths to fatten their cheeks so they'd look healthier to the guards assigned to remove the weak for extermination. His own weight eventually dropped to 80 pounds.

But Mandelbaum says he refused to give up hope. He poured what little energy he had into work, hoping it would eventually lead to his release. I went to a public school, I had good clothes and good food and a nice apartment," he says. It also helped that he didn't know the Nazis were trying to slaughter all Jews, something he says he and other prisoners learned only after liberation.

Their sudden freedom, too, was a complete shock, Mandelbaum says. Unlike at Auschwitz, Allied soldiers did not free them, as his camp was in a no man's land between the fleeing Nazis and advancing Russians.


This Post Has Comments

Leave a Reply